Opel Vectra A
since 1988-1995 release
Repair and operation of the car
Vektr's Opel And
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1 Maintenance
+ 2. Engine
+ 3. Repair of DOHC engines
+ 4. Repair of the diesel engine
+ 5. Cooling system
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. The fuel and exhaust system of models with system of injection of fuel
+ 8. Exhaust system and system of decrease in toxicity of exhaust gases
+ 9. Fuel systems of the diesel engine
- 10. Engine electrical systems
10.2. General information
10.3. System of ignition
10.4. Check of system of ignition
10.5. Rules of care of the accumulator
10.6. Check of the accumulator
10.7. Accumulator charging
10.9. System of charging
10:11. Driving belt of the generator
10:12. Removal and installation of the generator
10:13. Generator brushes
10:14. BOSCH generator
10:15. Small-sized DELCO-REMY generator
10:16. System of start of the engine
10:18. Removal and installation of a starter
10:19. Ignition coil
10:20. Cover and rotor of the distributor of ignition
10:21. Distributor of ignition (SOHC model)
10:22. Distributor of ignition (DOHC model)
+ 10:23. Repair of the distributor of ignition
10:24. Check and adjustment of a corner of an advancing of ignition
10:25. Fine tuning of the moment of ignition under the used fuel grade
10:26. Electronic modules
10:27. MSTS-i elements
10:28. Sensor of speed/provision of a bent shaft (model of 1,8 l)
10:29. Motronic system elements
10:30. Sensor of a detonation (DOHC model)
10:31. DIS module
10:32. Sensor of phases of the camshaft (C20 XE engine)
10:33. System of prestarting heating
10:34. Glow plugs
+ 11. Transmission
+ 12. Mechanical transmission
+ 13. Automatic transmission
+ 14. Power shafts
+ 15. Brake system
+ 16. Suspension bracket
+ 17. Body
+ 18. Electric equipment
+ 19. Check of malfunctions
– in operating time of the engine do not disconnect the accumulator, the generator of alternating current or any electric sockets;
The system of ignition makes ignition of fuel mix in engine cylinders at some point depending on turns of the engine and loading. On cars many various types of systems of ignition are established.
The system of ignition eats from onboard network of the car. In the ignition coil tension of onboard network of the car will be transformed to high voltage. High voltage is used for formation of a spark between electrodes of spark plugs in engine cylinders in a compression step. The chain of low voltage or primary chain consists of an electrical wiring which connects the accumulator, the ignition lock, primary winding of the coil of ignition and the electronic block of ignition. The chain of high voltage or a secondary chain consists of a high-voltage winding of the coil of ignition, the central high-voltage wire, the distributor of ignition, a rotor of the distributor, high-voltage wires of spark plugs and spark plugs.
The coil of ignition will transform faltering current of low voltage (+12 V) to a high-tension current for breakdown of an air gap between electrodes of spark plugs. The coil of ignition represents the transformer with the opened magnetic conductor which consists of the internal core and an external ring magnetic conductor. The secondary winding having a large number of rounds is reeled up around the core. Primary winding (with smaller number of rounds) is reeled up over secondary.
At switching off of tension on primary winding of the coil of ignition power failure of magnetic field in a secondary winding generates the high voltage which via the distributor of ignition moves to a candle of the corresponding cylinder. Then tension moves again to primary winding of the coil of ignition therefore magnetic field increases and the cycle is repeated for giving of high voltage to the following spark plug.
HEI systemHEI is a part of the system the ignition distributor with the breaker, the switchboard, the coil of ignition and spark plug. · The electronic impulse necessary for switching off of tension given to primary winding of the coil of ignition is formed by the magnetic trigger in the ignition distributor. The cogwheel of the trigger rotates in constant magnetic field. The size of magnetic field between ledges of the stator and a cogwheel depends on an air gap between poles. At the minimum air gap when the ledge of a cogwheel is located just before a ledge of the stator there is a formation of an impulse. Because magnetic field between ledges of the stator and a cogwheel constantly changes in the electromagnetic winding of the trigger established under a cogwheel tension is generated. This tension amplifies the switchboard and is used for shutdown of primary winding of the coil of ignition. For each cylinder about one ledge of the trigger and the stator is used.
The corner of an advancing of ignition is set by the distributor and corrected centrifugal and vacuum by regulators. The centrifugal regulator consists of two small weights which at increase in turns of the engine under the influence of centrifugal force disperse from a distributor shaft. Dispersing, small weights turn a cogwheel concerning a shaft of the distributor and thus the ignition moment depending on engine turns is corrected. The size of a divergence of small weights is defined by effort of returnable springs.
The vacuum regulator fixed on the ignition distributor case consists of the diaphragm block. To one party of a diaphragm depression from the carburetor moves through a hose. Other party of a diaphragm is connected by draft with the ignition distributor. Under the influence of depression the diaphragm is bent and through draft turns a basic plate against the direction of rotation of a shaft of the distributor and as a result of it the ignition advancing corner depending on engine loading is corrected.
The MSTS-i system has the ignition distributor with Hall's sensor (or the sensor of speed of rotation and the provision of a bent shaft on the X16 SZ models), the sensor of absolute pressure in an inlet collector, the sensor of temperature of oil, the switchboard, the coil of ignition and spark plugs.
Hall's effect consists in voznikno veniye of cross electric field in a semiconductor plate with current at action on it magnetic field. The sensor consists of a permanent magnet, a plate of the semiconductor and an integrated chip. Between a plate and a magnet there is a gap. In a gap of the sensor there is a steel screen with four cuts. When through a gap there passes the screen cut, the plate of the semiconductor is affected by magnetic field and from it the potential difference is removed. If in a gap there is a screen body, then magnetic power lines become isolated via the screen and do not affect a plate. In this case the potential difference on a plate does not arise. The integrated chip which is built in the sensor will transform the potential difference which is created on a plate in negative impulses of tension of a certain size at the sensor exit. At rotation of a shaft of the distributor of ignition the contactless sensor gives tension impulses on a kommut of Torahs. In turn the switchboard will transform them to impulses of current of primary winding of the coil of ignition.
On models of 1,8 l for switching off of tension given to the ignition coil the impulse of the sensor of speed and the provision of a bent shaft which becomes more active a gear rotor on a bent shaft is used. The gear rotor has 35 teeths located at identical distance and the absent 36th tooth. The place where there is no tooth, is used by the sensor for definition of the top dead point of a bent shaft.
Data on load of the engine arrive on the MSTS-i module from pressure sensor which is connected to the carburetor a vacuum tube. Also additional information from the oil temperature sensor comes to the MSTS-i module. On the basis of information from sensors the MSTS-i module defines the required ignition advancing corner.
The Multec system with MSTS-i
The electronic system of ignition without mechanical elements incorporates the electronic control device (ECU) of ignition located in deepening for the driver's legs. The system of ignition consists of the distributor of the ignition put in action from the left end distributive bring down also the signal containing the amplifier, the switch of octane number of fuel, a spark plug, high-voltage wires and the coil of ignition.
The ECU block operates system of ignition and system of injection of fuel and in fact, is a control system of the engine. For definition of a corner of an advancing of ignition the ECU block receives an inform a tion from the sensor of a bent shaft (about the frequency of rotation and the provision of a bent shaft), from the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid and from the sensor of absolute pressure in an inlet collector (about load of the engine). Besides, the ECU block obtains additional information on the determined octane number of fuel and the control unit of the automatic transmission (for smooth gear shifting the ignition advancing corner when switching decreases).
The ECU block uses entrances from various sensors to calculate the required installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil.
The system of ignition has high sensitivity therefore even on turns of idling the neznachitel can but change an ignition advancing corner. The system of ignition installed on the C18 SZ models is similar described except that the amplifier of signals is executed in the form of the separate block. The ECU block determines turns and the provision of a bent shaft of the engine by the sensor, fixed from the right forward side of the block of cylinders. The sensor becomes more active the special gear rotor with 58 teeths established on a bent shaft. The place on a rotor where one tooth is absent, is used by the sensor for definition of the top dead point of a bent shaft.
On all X16 SZ engines and on DOHC C20 XE engines since 1993 instead of the distributor and the coil of ignition the DIS module is used. On the X16 SZ engine the DIS module is located on a cover of a head of the block of cylinders in that place where the distributor would have to be installed. On C20 XE engines the sensor of position of the camshaft is attached to a head of the block of cylinders instead of the ordinary distributor of ignition. The DIS module is bred on an arm and fastens to a head of the block of cylinders from the camshaft operating inlet valves.
The DIS module consists of two coils of ignition. Each coil of ignition actually consists of two separate high-voltage windings which give a spark to two cylinders everyone (one - in cylinders 1 and 4, and another - in cylinders 2 and 3). The impulse of ignition moves on two spark plugs for each cylinder of the engine, one at once - on a compression step, one - on an exhaust step. The ignition spark on a step of an exhaust does not influence operation of the engine and therefore it is spent for nothing. The ECU block uses entrances from various sensors to calculate the required installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil.
Motronic M4.1 and M1.5 system
These systems operate ignition and injection of fuel.
The ECU block of the Motronic system obtains information from the sensor of speed/provision of a bent shaft, from the sensor of temperature of cooling liquid, устанав the livayemy thermostat in a casing, from the sensor of provision of a butterfly valve, from the measuring instrument of an air stream, and on models with the catalyst - from the oxygen sensor.
On the basis of information from sensors the ECU block operates the fuel pump, fuel nozzles, turns of idling and calculates the required installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition and time of accumulation of energy on the ignition coil. This system provides optimum control of the engine on all operational modes, reducing fuel consumption and improving dynamic characteristics of the car at reduce scientific research institute of emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere.
M2.5 and M2.8 Motronic system
This system is similar described for models with SOHC engines about the following ми differences.
Together with the sensor of speed/provision of a bent shaft the ignition distributor with Hall's sensor is used.
In system also separate switchboard which is installed on an ignition coil arm is used.
The ECU block obtains additional information from the sensor of a detonation installed on the block of cylinders. At emergence of a detonation the ECU block reduces a corner of an advancing of ignition and the predotvra shchat damage of the engine.
Simtec 56.1 system
In system of ignition Simtec there are no mechanical knots.
The control unit of the engine has system of electronic control by ignition which is called microprocessor system of ignition with inductive management or MSTS-i. The control unit is located under the finishing panel on the right side in deepening for the driver's legs.
Instead of the ordinary coil of ignition the dual coil of ignition which is run by the control unit is used.
On the basis of sensors of the camshaft and the inductive sensor of a bent shaft the top dead point, an angle of rotation of a bent shaft and turns of the engine is defined. On the basis of signals from sensors the control unit defines the moment of ignition and the moment of injection of fuel.
On the basis of information from the tape sensor of mass of a stream of air the ECU block defines amount of fuel for injection in the engine.
The sensor of temperature of the air (NTS) coming to the engine is installed in the main air branch pipe between the air filter and the measuring instrument of a stream of air.
The control system of the engine also operates the canister valve with coal. Ventilation of the fuel tank is controlled by the sensor of oxygen and corrected by the control unit.
Also the control unit obtains information from the detonation sensor. Because at emergence of a detonation in engine cylinders the sensor of a detonation reduces an ignition advancing corner, installation of octane number of fuel is not required.