Opel Vectra A
since 1988-1995 release
Repair and operation of the car
Vektr's Opel And
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.1 Maintenance
+ 2. Engine
+ 3. Repair of DOHC engines
+ 4. Repair of the diesel engine
+ 5. Cooling system
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. The fuel and exhaust system of models with system of injection of fuel
+ 8. Exhaust system and system of decrease in toxicity of exhaust gases
+ 9. Fuel systems of the diesel engine
+ 10. Engine electrical systems
+ 11. Transmission
+ 12. Mechanical transmission
+ 13. Automatic transmission
+ 14. Power shafts
+ 15. Brake system
+ 16. Suspension bracket
+ 17. Body
- 18. Electric equipment
18.2. General information
18.3. Electric chains
18.4. Detection of a faulty chain
18.5. Safety locks and relay
18.6. Ignition lock
18.7. Switch of lighting and indexes of turns
18.8. Windscreen washer/screen wiper switch
18.9. Switches on the dashboard
18:10. Switch of adjustment of provision of an external mirror
18:11. Switch of the electric drive of the hatch
18:12. The switch of illumination of salon installed in a door rack
18:13. Switch of lighting of the luggage compartment
18:14. Stoplight switch.
18:15. Switch of a control lamp of the emergency brake
18:16. Oil pressure sensor
18:17. Lighter illumination
18:19. A front seat with heating
18:20. Combination of devices
18:21. Elements of a combination of devices
18:22. Elements of the on-board computer
18:23. Elements of a control and management system
18:24. Sound signal
18:25. Lamp of illumination of salon
18:26. Replacement of bulbs of internal lighting
18:28. Engine of the proofreader of light of headlights
18:29. Adjustment of light of headlights
18:30. System of reduction of intensity of light of headlights
18:31. Forward index of turns
18:32. Side repeater of turns
18:33. Forward fog light
18:34. Back lamps
18:35. Lamp of illumination of registration plate
+ 18:36. Replacement of bulbs of external lighting
18:37. Replacement of brushes of a screen wiper
18:38. Screen wiper levers
18:39. Washer jets
18:40. Engine and drafts of a screen wiper
18:41. Engine of a screen wiper of a back door
18:42. Headlight screen wiper engine
18:43. Windscreen washer tank
18:44. Windscreen washer pump
18:45. Unidirectional valve of a washer of headlights
18:46. Elements of window regulators with the electric drive
18:47. Programming of a control system of window regulators
18:48. Elements of the central blocking of doors
18:50. An antenna mast with the electric drive
18:52. Radio tape recorder
18:53. Hatch drive electric motor
18:54. Speedometer drive cable
18:55. Anticreeping alarm system
18:56. Elements of the anticreeping alarm system
18:57. Safety cushion
18:58. A safety cushion from the driver
18:59. A steering wheel with a safety cushion
18.60. Contact block of a safety cushion
18.61. A safety cushion from the passenger
18.62. A safety cushion arm from the passenger
18.63. Control unit of safety cushions
+ 18.64. Electric circuits
+ 19. Check of malfunctions
18.4. Detection of a faulty chain
The usual electric chain consists of an electric element, a pereklyuchata leu, the relay, engines, safety locks, automatic switches, wires and sockets which connect an electric element to the accumulator and a body. For the help by search of sources of malfunction of system электрооборудо vaniye, at the end of the management are given schemes of electric equipment of the car.
Before to try to define a malfunction source, in the beginning study the corresponding scheme of electric equipment for receiving idea of the elements established in this chain. The circle of possible sources of malfunction can be narrowed if to check functioning of other elements entering this chain. If several elements or chains vykholit out of operation at the same time, then the problem, obviously, consists in a safety lock, the general for these chains or elements, or contact with a body.
Electric problems are usually caused by the simple reasons, such as the weakened or rusted sockets, lack of contact with a body, the fused safety locks, the melted burned-through crossing point or the faulty relay. Visually check a condition of all safety locks, wires and sockets in the failed chain before to start check of other elements. Use schemes of electric equipment for definition of what of trailer clips need to be checked for detection of a source of malfunction.
The main tools, are necessary ми for detection of a source of malfunction the tester or the voltmeter are (the bulb on 12 volts and couple of wires with probes on the ends, can be also used for conducting some checks); ohmmeter; the battery and a set of wires with probes, a cap puncture, it is desirable with the automatic switch or a safety lock which is used for a round of the checked wires or elements.
For detection of the reason of unreliable work any of elements (usually because of bad connection or pollution of contacts, or the damaged isolation), it is possible to carry out an inspection stirring of wires. It is necessary to shake a wire by a hand to check whether malfunction at the movement of a wire appears. Such metol it is possible to narrow a circle of possible sources of malfunction to what - or wires.
Along with problems because of bad connection of wires, two main types of malfunctions can take place in system of electric equipment – the opened chain or short circuit.
Problems with the opened chain appear as a result of break in electric equipment chain that interrupts course of current. The opened chain will cause shutdown of an element of electric equipment.
Problems with short circuit are caused by short circuit of the site of a chain that leads to leakage of current from other chain, usually directly on a body. Short circuit is usually caused by a rupture of isolation of wires that allows a wire to concern other wire or any grounded element, for example a body. Short circuit usually leads to burn-out of the corresponding safety lock.
Detection of a rupture of a chain
For check of integrity of a chain, connect the device for verification of schemes or from the ritsatelny probe of the voltmeter to the negative plug of the accumulator or the grounded element.
Connect the second probe to connection in the checked chain, it is desirable for the next to the accumulator or protect лю. At the same time this site of a chain has to be energized from the accumulator if only the socket of connection to the accumulator does not carry current or the safety lock did not fuse (at the same time do not forget that some chains электрооборудо a vaniye join only at turn of a key in the ignition lock in a certain situation).
Include a chain, then connect the tester probe to connection, the next to the chain switch on the party of the checked element.
If tension is present (what the control bulb or indications of the voltmeter testifies to), it means that appreciate the site between the corresponding connection and the switch has no gaps.
Continue check of a chain in the same way, and after detection of the site on which there is no tension, it means that the rupture of a chain occurred between this point and a point of the previous check on which there was tension. The majority of problems of the opened chain are caused by the broken or weakened socket.
Detection of a source of short circuit
For detection of a source of short circuit, disconnect chain loading elements in the beginning (elements of loading of a chain are elements which consume electric current, such as bulbs, electric motors, heating elements, etc.).
Remove corresponding protect a tel and connect probes of a tester or the voltmeter to safety lock plugs.
Include food in chains, at the same time do not forget that some chains of electric equipment join only at turn of a key in the ignition lock in a certain situation.
If tension is present (what the control bulb or indications of the voltmeter testifies to), it means that in a chain there is a short circuit.
If when conducting check there is no tension, however the safety lock still fuses at connection of that loading of a chain, it demonstrates failure of an element of loading.
Detection of bad grounding
The negative plug of the accumulator is connected to "weight" – to metal of a body, the engine or transmission at the same time many elements of electric equipment are connected in such a way that only the positive wire approaches them, at the same time current comes back to the accumulator through body metal. It means that fastening of an element to an elektroobor of a giving and a body are a part of an electric chain. Thereof, the bad or rusted fastening can cause failure in the functioning of an element or lead to its unstable or bad work. In particular, bulbs can burn with dim light (especially if in a point of grounding of this bulb grounding any else the switched-on electric equipment element is carried out), elektrodv gatel can slowly work, and also work of one chain can have effect imperceptible at first sight on work of other chain. Do not forget that on many cars grounding wires between some elements, such as engines/transmissions and a body are used, that is in those places where pt direct contact between metal elements, because of soft rubber fastenings or a paint coat.
For check of reliability of grounding of an element, it is necessary to switch-off the accumulator and to connect one of ohmmeter probes to reliably grounded element. Connect other probe to a pla wire to connection with a body which needs to be checked. Resistance shown by an ohmmeter has to be equal to zero; if is not present, check connection as follows.
If you assume lack of grounding, investigate connection and clear the site of a body and the plug of a wire (or the surface of grounding of an element) to pure metal. Carefully remove all traces of dirt, then by means of a knife peel all paint so that the reliable contact of two metal surfaces turned out. At assembly, reliably delay fastening of the socket; at connection of the plug of a wire, establish a washer with rough edges between the plug and a surface of a body for ensuring reliable connection. At connection, prevent emergence of corrosion in the future, having put a layer of vaseline or silicone lubricant.